To elucidate the students about the Anatomy of the root apex, the importance of cleaning & shaping the apical 3rd of the tooth.The objective of this lecture is to brief the clinical debridement of the apical third of the root canal system.Cleaning and shaping the root canal system is essential to clinical success in endodontic treatment. The apical third is the most difficult to clean and shape because of the ever-increasing complexity of the anatomy, that is the ramifications and the tortuosity. Anatomy of the apical 3rd involves structures like Anatomic apex, Radiographic apex , Major diameter , Minor diameter, Apical constriction , Accessory canals and Lateral canals. Apical third of the root canal system can cleaned and shaped and rendered free of organic substrates and debris. From here, three-dimensional compaction of gutta-percha in conjunction with sealer is easy.
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