DR. S.V. SINGH, OMBUDSPERSON - E-mail ID: ombudsperson@santosh.ac.in

The primary objective of post-graduate (PG) education is to produce highly skilled professionals who can deliver superior healthcare services and contribute to scientific advancement through research and training. In the field of ophthalmology, the aim of the program is to establish a standardized approach to teaching at the PG level across the country. This will ensure consistency in both PG and undergraduate education, resulting in the development of competent ophthalmic surgeons with the necessary expertise. This document serves as a guideline for educators and learners, offering illustrative directions to attain specific learning outcomes through effective learning and assessment methods. While maintaining the original purpose and content, minor compromises in syntax have been made, retaining the "competencies" within the "domains of learning" to achieve uniformity as approved by the Reconciliation Board of the Academic Committee.


Programme Objectives:

The clinical post-graduate training programs aim to develop a student's skills as a clinical specialist, teacher, and researcher. These programs are designed to equip post-graduate students with the following qualities, knowledge, and skills:

  • Fundamental knowledge of human body structure, function, and development as it relates to ophthalmology, including understanding factors that can disrupt these mechanisms and lead to structural and functional disorders.
  • The ability to independently handle and manage most day-to-day ophthalmology issues, while recognizing the limitations of their clinical knowledge and knowing when to seek further assistance.
  • Awareness of the impact of the environment on health and familiarity with the epidemiology of common ophthalmological diseases.
  • The capacity to integrate preventive, curative, and rehabilitative measures in the comprehensive management of diseases.
  • Proficiency in addressing common eye problems prevalent in rural areas and effectively dealing with them.
  • Knowledge of the Mobile Ophthalmic Unit, its operation, and its components.
  • Familiarity with the latest advancements in Ophthalmic Sciences.
  • The ability to collaborate with senior colleagues in planning educational programs in Ophthalmology and familiarity with modern teaching and evaluation methods.
  • Competence in identifying research problems, devising rational approaches to solve them, executing research projects, and critically evaluating data in light of existing knowledge.
  • Proficiency in drawing logical conclusions and assessing the reliability and relevance of evidence.
  • Basic understanding of the medico-legal aspects of medicine.
  • Familiarity with patient counseling and obtaining proper consent.

Overall, these programs aim to produce well-rounded professionals equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to excel in clinical practice, teaching, and research in the field of ophthalmology.


The Team 



Click here to read more about the Ophthalmology department


 Academic Year for the MD/MS course shall commence from 2nd  May of the year of admission.





There shall be four theory papers.

Paper I: Basic Sciences related to Ophthalmology, Refraction & Optics

Paper II: Clinical Ophthalmology

Paper III: Systemic Diseases in Relation to Ophthalmology

Paper IV: Recent Advances in Ophthalmology and Community Ophthalmology


Clinical/Practical and oral/viva voce examination: 


 1 long case

2 short cases with different problems

2 fundus Cases

1 refraction case


Oral/Viva voce Examination shall be comprehensive enough to test the post graduate student’s overall knowledge of the subject and shall include:

i. Instruments

ii. Pathology specimens

iii. Drugs, X-rays, USG/OCT/CT/MRI Scans, etc.

iv. Visual fields and other ophthalmic diagnostic charts


Teaching and Learning Methods:

1. Group Discussion

Junior postgraduate students have the opportunity to present symposiums to their senior peers for thorough discussion. The symposiums are then presented in front of the faculty or senior eye specialists, promoting open and unbiased discussions. These discussions help the postgraduate students prepare for broader class discussions.

2. Clinical Case discussion

a. Apart from bedside discussions and outpatient teaching, it is essential for a department to schedule regular clinical case discussions. These sessions, lasting 1-2 hours once a week, should include a wide range of cases over three years with multiple repetitions. A problem-oriented approach is recommended to enhance decision-making skills.

b. In addition to bedside teaching rounds, a minimum of 5 hours of formal teaching per week is necessary.

c. Encouraging consultant case presentations helps solve complex problems and provides a platform for discussing interesting cases.

d. Students should be encouraged to present and discuss cases based on patient records, as it helps develop their diagnostic and decision-making abilities. It also allows consultants to critically evaluate students' academic progress.

e. Participation in case presentations at in-hospital multidisciplinary forums should be encouraged.

f. Postgraduate students are expected to actively engage in the teaching and training of undergraduate students and interns.

g. The department should promote e-learning activities.


3.  Seminars

Weekly seminars should be held for a minimum of one hour, covering a diverse range of topics. These topics should be repeated every three years to ensure comprehensive coverage. Seminars can involve individual presentations or group discussions involving multiple postgraduate students.

4. Journal Club

Postgraduate students review and discuss journals, analyzing articles within a specific subject area over a six-month period. The review focuses on the 1. Aim 2. Methods 3. Observations 4. Discussions, and 5. Conclusions of each article. The assigned student presents journal summaries to senior postgraduates, demonstrating their comprehension of the article's content. They address any points raised, provide critiques, and evaluate the article in relation to existing literature.

5. To be eligible for the postgraduate degree examination, a student in a broad speciality/super speciality postgraduate program must complete one poster presentation, present one paper at a national/state conference, and have one research paper published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication during their postgraduate studies.

6. Out-Patients:

During the initial six months of the training program, postgraduate students will be mentored by a faculty member to learn history taking and ocular examination techniques in ophthalmic practice. They will also receive orientation on common eye problems. After this period, clinical postgraduate students will work independently, handling new and old cases, including refractions and prescriptions. They will be supervised by a senior postgraduate student and faculty member, who can provide guidance in challenging situations.

7. Wards:

Based on the total bed capacity and the number of postgraduate students, beds in the in-patient section will be assigned to each student. The objective is to offer increasing opportunities and responsibilities based on seniority. Postgraduate students are required to maintain detailed histories and case records.

Currently, the importance of beds and admissions in Ophthalmology has diminished, as surgical procedures and specialized investigations are predominantly conducted on an outpatient basis. Teaching primarily takes place in the outpatient department and special clinics.

8. Rotations: Specialty clinics

The student will have the opportunity to rotate in the following subspecialty clinics:

  • Anterior segment and cataract
  • Glaucoma
  • Oculoplastics
  • Paediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • Retina and Uvea
  • Cornea, Contact lens, and low vision
  • Neuroophthalmology
  • Refractive Clinic

9. Practicals in Ocular Histopathology

Postgraduate students can receive fully stained slides of ocular tissues, along with relevant clinical data, to discuss diagnosis and differential diagnosis based on the provided information.

10. Participate in approved scientific gatherings (Continuing Medical Education, Symposia, and Conferences).

11. Additional sessions covering fundamental sciences, biostatistics, research methods, teaching approaches, hospital waste management, health economics, medical ethics, and legal aspects relevant to ophthalmology practice are recommended.

12. Regular evaluation of log books will be conducted by faculty members involved in the training to ensure proper maintenance.